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The adipose tissue surrounding the renal hilum was left intact as much as possible. The renal artery and vein were circumferentially mobilized from the renal hilum to the proximal ends as close as possible to their origins from the abdominal aorta and inferior vena cava. The posterior lumbar vein, spermatic vein and adrenal vein were circumferentially mobilized, ligated and cut in turn by harmonic

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